In 2050, the energy supply and demand in Indonesia will be increased, aligned with technological development and population explosion.
Indonesia will definitely have an increased number of Megapolitan cities within the next 40 years. The issues will remain on the transportation and electricity aspects.
Energy elasticity and intensity will still be high, with a low number of energy per capita. By that time, the issue is not only fossil energy alone but will be more towards renewable energy.
Indonesia with abundance natural resources will not be difficult actually to have alternative energy; but the problem will not just be looking for alternative energy sources but also an environmentally friendly one. It has always been a challenge, and will continue to be a challenge.
I personally think, 40 years from now, Indonesia already has a breakthrough system which utilizes cooperation among Asian countries, for the procurement of renewable energy sources and an environmentally friendly technology and also the political system that will be mutually beneficial. The important aspects will be the economic factors about price of renewable energy itself, and the role of state enterprises in the energy sector.
The barriers for realizing it will be on the stakeholders’ supports, support from the government as the regulator, and the infrastructure which is still inadequate, such as oil refineries which are still very few; because it is expensive and not many investors want to invest. Politics will be very crucial at the time, because Asia will be become very developed and Indonesia is also being on the circle. Both internal and external politics, in my opinion will act as the strength and also the resistance at that time.